Note the parallels between chapters 4 – 11 and 12 – 17
* Both begin with a scene in heaven (chapters 4, 12)
* Both continue with a conflict between the people of God and the forces of evil (chapters 5, 12)
* Both anticipate God stepping into the picture (chapters 8 and 14)
* Both have God identifying His people as the 144,000 (chapter 7 and 14).
* Both have God acting to discipline the earth for its evil (chapters 8-9 and 15-16).
* In both sections, the discipline fails to change the behavior of mortals (9:21; 16:9).
* Both sections end with the end of the world, signified by lightning, peals of thunder, earthquake and hailstones (compare 11:19 and 16:17-21).
Chapter fifteen serves to introduce us to the coming judgment of the earth. The judge is just and true. He alone is holy, and all nations will, if not submit to His will, succumb to His power.